Migration and Multiculturalism

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  1. The key facets of any colonial rule included the control of the resources, labor, and markets of the host nations, over which the colonialists were imposing their rule. The colonialists also had a target of changing the socio-cultural, religious, and linguistic structure of the host populations. The colonial rule had a key impact of shaping the new consciousness in the world whereby welfare for all people was achieved. As a result of colonialism, the countries such as Thailand, the United States of America, and New Zealand were able to struggle for their independence. On the other hand, colonialism also led to the distortion of cultures whereby most of the colonies adopted languages and traditions of the colonialists. For example, Kenya has adopted the English language. In addition, the trade and discrimination of the colonized nations were common features.
  2. Globalization is a process whereby the countries, companies, and people come together and interact in terms of international trade, investment, and information technology, for the advantage of each other. It affects cultures, environments, economies, and human lives. Globalization differs from colonization in that it does not feature exploitation and unhindered movement of labor as it was in the case with the colonialism. While globalization is a free-will integration, colonization involved the forced establishment of the colonies.
  3. The legacy of colonialism has been both positive and negative. In different instances, it can be explained in terms of neocolonialism, dependency, genocides, and colonial enterprises, which were established during the colonial era. The third world countries have experienced neocolonialism and dependency, which resulted from colonialism. Even today, they still depend on the countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany due to the colonial mentality. Discrimination has also been evident since time immemorial; the rich nations have always considered the countries of Africa and Latin America as poor and dependant. On the positive side, colonialism led to the establishment of strong communication and transport network, which has been stable up to date. The colonial development projects of the French, Holland, and British colonialists are still working in their colonies. The changes in culture have also left the legacy because the colonized nations were able to learn and adapt the colonialist's language. Many countries in East Africa, for example, conformed to the language of colonialists. 
  4. The reasons for the increased migration in the world are wars, natural calamities, and subsequent search for the asylum. In the 1990s, due to political instability, a large number of people migrated to America, Australia, and especially Europe because their countries were experiencing the wars. Some refugees were seeking asylum in the Western democracies, for example, Germany, the UK, or France, because of discrimination in the communist countries. The migration in this period is also associated with the development of the global economy as there was a need for more contract labor, which was better paid in the industrialized countries of Europe. Moreover, people moved to the nations that they believed to experience more development and provide more opportunities in the future.
  5. Globalization had led to the further colonization that limited the political freedom of the former colonies. The cultural rights of communities are availed while the heritage associated with gaining independence is gone. Through globalization and cultural internalization, the autonomy and policy-making ability of a state is weakened. In such a manner, the developing countries have to consider the super countries while making their decisions. The supra-national political groupings, which are a result of globalization, weaken the power of individual states. In some instances, however, globalization support the national identities of the states. For example, it has been clear that the European integration has led to strengthening of national identity in Britain.
  6. Globalization has improved the connection between the nations, which has facilitated the migration of people on the both temporary and permanent basis. Because of globalization, the labor has been flowing across the borders because of the increased demand. This migration is temporary, as most employees prefer working on a contract basis. The permanent migration has also increased. For example, in the African countries, people with specialized training migrate to the West countries that offer better condition of life and work.
  7. Richmond argues that there has been an increase in the anti-immigrant sentiment because the host nations, for instance, the US, are afraid of the increased job competition, and social overpayments spent for the immigrants. The issue of insecurity has also been revealed because some immigrants enter the host countries illegally with the intentions of security threats.
  8. Comparatico is a system of interpersonal relations. The essential aspect of it is baptism that is viewed as a mean of establishing the long-lasting and close relationships. The concept of good parenthood developed in the Mediterranean Europe was a result of the need to establish horizontal kinship relationships together with the vertical relations. Emerging of elder and younger siblings also led to its development.
  9. Comparatico is considered a social basis for the preservation of the personal and group identity among Calabrians in Southern Australia. In fact, it is the distinctive feature of the Calabrian group. The group has been able to maintain its social, linguistic, cultural, and religious peculiarities, which have enabled them to maintain their status and be respected in the society despite the challenges encountered. It is not applicable to other immigrant groups because according to personal observations, when such groups migrate to Australia, they adopt the cultures and way of life of the indigenous groups.
  10. According to the Dateline program, the Italian government is considered a less welcoming to the asylum seekers. The Amnesty International revealed that Italy treated the unauthorized migration into the country as a criminal offense. The immigrants are equaled to the criminals. This view on the asylum seekers has further deepened in Australia where a strict legal restriction has been passed requiring the detention of non-Australians staying in the country without a valid visa. The government is only concerned with the asylum seekers who enter the country unlawfully. The country has recently adopted strict restrictions on the asylum seekers who travel to Australia by boat especially from Malaysia. This attitude is a result of the cultural and political views of the Australians on the asylum seekers.

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