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In the United States, drug trafficking has been a common phenomenon since the Americans discovered drugs, such as morphine, cocaine, and heroin during the nineteenth century (Madsen, 2012). Therefore, drug abuse, drug addiction, and various criminal offences, such as murder, robbery, and burglary have led to numerous problems of the Americans (Friman, 2009). In the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States started to institute effective restrictions both at home and overseas. The United States has used domestic law enforcement to address drug trafficking within the country, as well as world movements to limit coca and opium plants (Brophy, 2008). Later on, in the twentieth century, new drugs, such as marijuana, psychedelics, and amphetamines became common within the United States. This forced the government of the United States to develop new agencies and laws, including the United States Drug Enforcement Administration to deal with the problems
The profitability of the illegal drug trade has attracted many aggressive, ruthless, and sophisticated drug traffickers across the world (Madsen, 2012). Globalization has enabled people to do businesses across the world. Therefore, individuals can move from their home countries with concealed cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, heroin, and other illegal drugs for distribution in the countries of destination. Individuals involved in the international trade, such as importation or exportation of vehicles, may ship their cargo together with illegal drugs, which they conceal carefully (Madsen, 2012). Diverse groups of people participate in trafficking and distribution of illegal drugs in many countries, such as the United States. Some criminal groups operate from South America and smuggle heroin and cocaine into the United States through various routes, which include land routes via Mexico, sea routes via the Caribbean, air corridors, and maritime routes via Mexican coast (Brophy, 2008). In addition, criminal groups conceal and transport cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, marijuana, heroin to the United States (Madsen, 2012). They smuggle marijuana and heroin across the Mexico’s Southwest Border into the United States. Therefore, the main source of illegal drugs in the United States includes Mexico and Colombia, which are the neighboring countries (Brophy, 2008). Colombia is another country from which drug traffickers smuggle illegal drugs into the United States. The geographical location of Mexico and Colombia favors the transportation of illegal drugs to the United States (Madsen, 2012). This countries border the United States and the sea, thereby enhancing the transportation of illegal drugs through land, air, and sea.
War on drugs started in 1914 when the federal government passed the Harrison Narcotic Act (Madsen, 2012). This act restricted people from manufacturing and distributing marijuana, morphine, cocaine, and heroin. The early wars on drug trafficking appeared ineffective because the cases of drug trafficking, drug abuse, and other drug related crimes continued to increase overwhelmingly. In the contemporary American society, the modern drug war constitutes the United States Drug Enforcement Administration and Community Action Programs, such as the Community Empowerment Program (Friman, 2009). President Richard Nixon announced war on drugs after proclaiming that drug abuse was the greatest enemy in the United States. Nixon targeted both the demand and supply fronts to defeat drug abuse effectively across the United States and the neighboring countries, such as Mexico and Colombia (Brophy, 2008). In 1973, under the leadership of President Nixon, the Drug Enforcement Agency came into being. This contributed to the closing of the Mexican Border, as well as ending of trade between the United States and Mexico. However, closing of the borders to drug traffickers has not been practical because the demand for illegal drugs still continues to exist (Madsen, 2012). In addition, drug traffickers use diverse routes, including air, land, and sea. Marijuana decriminalization was another effort against drug trafficking and abuse, but the state and federal government discontinued the effort when it failed to work. President Bill Clinton encouraged the participation of Community Action Programs against drugs. However, the programs’ potential did not undergo realization.
In the United States, the war against drug trafficking and drug abuse has not been effective. This has been evident because the United States federal authorities continue to seize large quantities of illegal drugs at the border and within the United States every year. This is because the drug traffickers use a variety of tactics in the transportation and distribution of the illegal drugs. They conceal the drugs effectively and find the most appropriate routes (Madsen, 2012). Coordination among drug traffickers and consumers makes smuggling of illegal drugs into the United States effective. The demand for illegal drugs continues to exist in the United States.
The recommendation for the war against drug trafficking and abuse is to deal with the demand for illegal drugs. Demand for the illegal drugs continues to create a ready market for drug traffickers. Various techniques to reduce the demand of illegal drugs include the drug rehabilitation and education programs (Madsen, 2012). These programs will involve the treatment of drug addicts, as well as insemination of information to the citizens, regarding the negative impacts of drug abuse. Therefore, reduction of the demand for illegal drugs will reduce drug trafficking and drug abuse significantly.
In conclusion, drug trafficking has continued to be a growing phenomenon within the United States. Many criminal groups distribute illegal drugs from Mexico, Colombia, and other countries to the United States (Brophy, 2008). The state and federal governments have waged war on drugs trafficking, but the problem continues to grow. This is because the demand for the illegal drugs continues to exist within the borders of the United States. Therefore, the efforts to reduce the demand for the illegal drugs will deal with drug trafficking effectively (Madsen, 2012).