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Biological Aspects of Health and Disease

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Introduction

In a person’s physical, social and mental status, biology plays an important role in determining consistency in body functions. This is because the reason of most diseases that humans suffer from is genes. Despite the process of transmission, a biological factor must be actively involved; for example, mothers can pass diseases to their babies during pregnancy or breastfeeding. On the other hand, patients may pass diseases to other people through the air and other factors. In all these ways, the biological aspect of a person’s health is active since if a person’s immune system is weak, it is not able to fight against diseases attack, and so the chances are that a person may get infected easily as compared to when his/her immune system is strong. Biology helps determine the rate at which a person is at risk of contacting a disease and passing it on to others. However, individuals can control this fact, because when they are aware of the possibility of contacting a disease, they can assess their health condition and make a diagnosis, which can raise the health condition through the recommended treatments. Biology is basic in analyzing body changes from time to time, for instance, the resistance of body organs to the attack of other diseases (Kovalchuck 2012, p. 107-131).

There are various systems of the body that play key roles in maintaining a person’s good health, such as the central and autonomic nervous systems, and the endocrine system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which create a network of different cells coordinating body actions by sending instructions and signals to the other body parts including muscles, glands and organs through the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is a unit where the brain and spinal cord process all the information that control the psychological and physiological functions of the human body, for instance, speech, movement, thinking, memory and sensation. The nerves that input information into the central nervous system are afferent nerves; those that output information are efferent nerves, while those that operate within the central nervous system are interneurons. The autonomic nervous system includes internal organs, glands and tissues that work under the nervous system to ensure the provision of a steady internal environment, such as proper digestion and normal blood pressure. The endocrine system, on the other hand, does not belong to the nervous system but plays a major role in ensuring crucial communication in the body. It commonly uses body hormones to regulate metabolism, growth and digestion (Noback 2005, p. 219-367).

The central and autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine system perform different roles in the body involving all body organs for one reason %u2011 to ensure proper functioning of the body. They all assist each other in passing and giving information to get response from all body parts. For example, the central nervous system gives good sensory functioning, while the autonomic nervous system gives good blood circulation, and the endocrine system gives good metabolism and digestion. They all work to regulate basic needs of the body uniquely to ensure good health. The role and functions of the brain are considerably verbal to evaluate the visual capacity of a person. These questions help doctor assess the capacity of a person to coordinate whatever he/she visualizes with his brain and then transfers that information to speech organs and gives an answer. In most people with poor brain functioning, there is more of discrimination between objects and events, such that their brains are not able to communicate to other organs and give feedback. Proper functioning of the brain determines the personality, memory, attention, emotions, consciousness and self-awareness (Kovalchuck 2012, p. 107-131).

This means that if the coordination of brain cells with other organs and glands is poor, several functions will be affected. This may lead to mental conditions which, if not treated, may further complicate mental health of a person. Interpretation of information by brain to the other body parts is essential, because it also influences the survival of the brain. Bio-psychological factors highly affect the behavioural pattern in a person, because when any sensitive part of the brain is damaged, the consciousness of a person gets affected hence destroying many other brain cells structure. This eventually leads to poor functioning, such as blood circulation and poor communication, which at last destroys a person’s identity affecting his behavioural patterns. This is because the person’s brain is not sending or picking the right information at the right time and intrigues deviant behaviours (Nicholls 1992, p. 77-93).

Electrical neuro-chemical activity of the brain affects its functioning through updating cells to regulate accurate information and giving a three-dimensional response to the other parts. This means that when professionally done, it can make a person’s brain function better, and when unprofessionally done, it can damage the brain functioning. Brain damage may cause deviant behaviours, such as hyperactivity, loss of memory or depression from illusion. Better brain functioning may cause a person to be more accurate in delivering and processing information, calm and realistic in handling issues. Substances such as stimulants and drugs may also damage brain functioning by affecting activities of the brain. For example, when a person takes drugs, his brain starts to send wrong signals to the other body parts. This means that his reasoning capacity also goes below average and influences his behaviour (Nicholls 1992, p. 77-93).

Various body mechanisms underlying stress include addiction to stimulants or exposure to harmful environments that cause damage to body organs. In addition, there are biological factors such as development of complications during birth. All these mechanisms cause severe damages to body parts through the behavioural patterns that a person develops during the brain functioning. Causes of stress include consistent occurrences of severe symptoms despite the attempts of medication and therapy and no improvement noted, depression, frustrations in the living and working environments of a person, and fear to fail or poor performance. These stressful factors are treatable through therapeutic exercises such as physical activities and spiritual activities, which help relax a person physically, mentally and spiritually. Therapies are also recommended for people who need extra medical attention. The purpose of these therapy sessions for patients’ and children’s families is to make them understand the nature and nurture of the conditions (Nicholls 1992, p. 77-93).

In conclusion, biological aspects of health and diseases cover a diverse range of health complications that affect body functioning. For this reason, it is important that people get medical check-ups occasionally to ensure there is no existence of diseases. Doctors should diagnose treatment professionally and properly in cases of health condition to help people develop the right attitudes towards their health. In addition to this, they should help people acquire knowledge on body parts functioning, so that with any slight actual or potential changes or complications, people will seek to be medically tested. With the right diagnosis, patients can regain their normal self and live normal fulfilling lives no matter what the outcome of the results may be. 

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